Colorless to White

silver nitrate with potassium chloride

This demonstration makes a white precipitate by mixing equal amounts of silver nitrate and potassium chloride.
AgNO3 (aq) + KCl (aq) → KNO3 (aq) + AgCl (s)

Sodium Hydroxide in Water

sodium hydroxide ions in solution

When sodium hydroxide is dissolved in water it feels warm, which indicates an exothermic reaction.
NaOH (s) → Na+ (aq) + OH- (aq)

The Disappearing Cup

acetone dissolves Styrofoam

Acetone dissolves a Styrofoam cup because of the principle like dissolves like.

Super Saturated Sodium Acetate

A super saturated sodium acetate solution is poured onto a sodium acetate seed crystal. The seed crystal provides a crystalline structure template for the sodium acetate ions to form on. This is an exothermic process.

Pick Up An Ice Cube

This demo picks up an ice cube without lifting it. The salt changes the melting point of the ice cube which “freezes” it to the string, allowing the demonstrator to pick the ice cube up.

Making Chalk

This demo shows how a precipitation reaction works. The precipitate formed is a common ingredient in chalk.
CaCl2 (aq) + Na2CO3 (aq) → NaCl (aq) + CaCO3 (s)

M&M Color Wheel

M&Ms in water, candy coating dissolving

When M&M’s are placed in water, the outer shell, which is made of sugar, dissolves. The sugar moves from a place of high concentration (the M&M) to a place of low concentration (the water away from the M&M). When the sugar shell dissolves and moves outward, it takes the layer of food dye with it. When more than one M&M is placed into a petri dish the colors do not mix because the concentration of sugar at the interface is approximately the same. Also, around the bottom of the M&M water appears cloudy because the sugar that is dissolved is more dense than the water, so it sinks.

Ammonium Nitrate in Water

ammonium nitrate ions in solution

When ammonium nitrate is dissolved in water it feels cold, which indicates an endothermic reaction.
NH4NO3 (s) → NH4+ (aq) + NO3- (aq)